Kesenjangan dalam Wacana Antikorupsi di Indonesia: Temuan dari Literatur Studi Korupsi Kritis

Main Article Content

Kanti Pertiwi

Abstract

Indonesia’s anti-corruption movement has occupied public discourse within the last two decades. Various programs have been carried out by the vanguard in eradicating corruption in this country, the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK). However, the journey was not free from turbulence and ambiguity, both in the realm of law and in the social sphere. Using a critical discourse analysis approach, this paper examines (anti)corruption discourses in Indonesia and how they are positioned against each other. Previous studies suggest that there is a strong emphasis on universal morality within the dominant discourses on (anti)corruption in Indonesia. Using illustrations which are drawn from in-depth anthropologically-oriented studies, I demonstrate that corruption needs to be understood through the lens of morality-in-context. This further suggests there is a serious gap between the dominant and marginalized discourses of (anti)corruption in Indonesia.

Article Details

Section
Articles

References

Afriyadi, A. D. (2019). Penjelasan pemerintah soal tukin PNS naik 90%. Detik.com, 15 Januari 2019. URL: https://finance.detik.com/berita-ekonomi-bisnis/d-4385448/penjelasan-lengkap-pemerintah-soal-tukin-pns-naik-90.

Alvesson, M., & Deetz, S. 2000. Doing critical management research. London: Sage.

Bedirhanlu, P. (2007). The Neoliberal Discourse on Corruption as a Means of Consent Building: reflections from post-crisis Turkey. Third World Quarterly, 28(7), 1239-1254.

Bourdieu, P. (2004). The forms of capital, The Routledge Falmer reader in sociology of education, red. S. Ball, RoutledgeFalmer, London, 15-29.

Bracking, S. (2007). Political Development and Corruption: Why ‘Right Here, Right Now!’? Corruption and development (pp. 3-27): Springer.

Bracking, S. L. (2009). Political economies of corruption beyond liberalism: An interpretative view of Zimbabwe. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, 30(1), 35-51.

Bratsis, P. (2003). The construction of corruption, or rules of separation and illusions of purity in bourgeois societies. Social Text, 21(4), 9-33.
Bratsis, P. (2014). Political Corruption in the Age of Transnational Capitalism. Historical Materialism, 22(1), 105-128.

Brown, E., dan Cloke, J. (2004). Neoliberal reform, governance, and corruption in the South: Assessing the international anti-corruption crusade. Antipode, 36(2), 272-294.

Brown, E., dan Cloke, J. (2005). Neoliberal reform, governance, and corruption in Central America: Exploring the Nicaraguan case. Political Geography, 24(5), 601-630.

Budiman, A., Roan, A., dan Callan, V. J. (2013). Rationalizing Ideologies, Social Identities, and Corruption Among Civil Servants in Indonesia During the Suharto Era. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(1), 139-149.

Bukovansky, M. (2006). The hollowness of anti-corruption discourse. Review of international political economy, 13(2), 181-209.

Butt, S. (2009). ‘Unlawfulness’ and corruption under Indonesian law. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 45(2), 179-198.

Crotty, M. (1998). The foundations of social research: meaning and perspective in the research process. St Leonards, NSW: Allen dan Unwin.

Dewayani, S. (2015). 1.2 Interpreting Street Narratives of Children and Parents in Indonesia International Handbook of Interpretation in Educational Research (hal. 111-134): Springer.

Escobar, A. (2004). Beyond the Third World: imperial globality, global coloniality, and anti-globalization social movements. Third World Quarterly, 25(1), 207-230.

Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and text: Linguistic and intertextual analysis within discourse analysis. Discourse dan Society, 3(2), 193-217.

Fairclough, N. (2001). Language and power: Pearson Education.

Ganie-Rochman, M., dan Achwan, R. (2016). Corruption in Indonesia's Emerging Democracy. Journal of Developing Societies, 32(2), 159-177.

Gebel, A. C. (2012). Human nature and morality in the anti-corruption discourse of Transparency International Public Administration and Development, 32(1), 109-128.

Hall, S. (1997). Representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices (Vol. 2). London: Sage, in association with The Open University.

Hall, S. (2001). Foucault: Power, knowledge, and discourse. In M. Wetherell, S.

Taylor, & S. Yates (Eds.), Discourse theory and practice: A reader(pp. 72-81). London: Sage.

Hardy, C., dan Phillips, N. (2004). Discourse and power. The Sage handbook of organizational discourse, 299-316.

Harvey, D. (2005). The new imperialism: OUP Oxford.

Heryanto, A. (1988). The development of "Development". Indonesia (46), 1. Diperoleh dari http://sfx.unimelb.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/sfxlcl41?sid=googledanauinit=Adanaulast=Heryantodanatitle=The Development of%22 Development%22dantitle=Indonesiadanissue=46dandate=1988danspage=1danissn=0019-7289.

Hotland, T., dan Taufiqurrahman, M. (2006, 12 December). SBY rallies anti-graft effort, but warns against excess. The Jakarta Post.
Investor Daily. (2012, 25 Agustus ). PNS, Konsumen Terbesar Anggaran Negara. Investor Daily.

Jakarta Post. (1999, 14 May ). World Bank to fight Indonesian poverty with new vigor. The Jakarta Post.

Jakimow, T. (2018). A moral atmosphere of development as a share: Consequences for urban
development in Indonesia. World Development, 108, 47-56.

Jemadu, A. (1997, 2 July). Corruption and bureaucracy. The Jakarta Post, hal. 4.

Jørgensen, M. W., dan Phillips, L. J. (2002). Discourse analysis as theory and method: Sage.

Koechlin, L. (2013). Corruption as an Empty Signifier: Politics and Political Order in Africa. Leiden: Brill.

Kuncoro, A. (2018). A dilemma between firm survivability and business ethic in Indonesia. INTEGRITAS: Jurnal Antikorupsi, 4(2), 244-254.

Lazzarato, M. (2009). Neoliberalism in action: Inequality, insecurity, and the reconstitution of the social. Theory, culture dan society, 26(6), 109-133.

Leff, N. H. (1964). Economic development through bureaucratic corruption. American behavioral scientist, 8(3), 8-14.

Marquette, H. (2012). 'Finding God' or 'Moral disengagement' in the fight against corruption in developing countries? Evidence from India and Nigeria. Public Administration and Development, 32(1), 11-26.

Mawuko-Yevugah, L. (2014). Reinventing development: aid reform and technologies of governance in Ghana (Vol. 1): Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Pertiwi, K. (2016). "But that's not corruption": an interpretive approach to corruption in business-government relations in Indonesia. Disertasi tidak diterbitkan, Universitas Melbourne, Australia.

Pertiwi, K. (2018). Contextualizing Corruption: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach to Studying Corruption in Organizations. Administrative Sciences, 8(2).

Phillips, N., dan Hardy, C. (1997). Managing multiple identities: Discourse, legitimacy, and resources in the UK refugee system. Organization, 4(2), 159-185.

Phillips, N., dan Hardy, C. (2002). Discourse analysis: Investigating processes of social construction (Vol. 50). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Polzer, T. (2001). Corruption: deconstructing the World Bank discourse. Development Studies Institute (DESTIN) Working Paper, 1, 18.

Schutte, S. A. (2012). AGAINST THE ODDS: ANTI-CORRUPTION REFORM IN INDONESIA. Public Administration and Development, 32(1), 38-48.

Shadnam, M., 2015. Theorizing morality in context. International Review of Sociology, 25(3), pp.456-480.

Spiggle, S. (1994). Analysis and interpretation of qualitative data in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 21(3), 491-503.

Theobald, R. (1999). So what really is the problem about corruption? Third World Quarterly, 20(3), 491-502. Diperoleh dari ://WOS:000081757200002.

Tidey, S. (2016). Between the ethical and the right thing: How (not) to be corrupt in Indonesian bureaucracy in an age of good governance. American Ethnologist, 43(4), 663-676.

Toeba, T. (2018). Corruption in Public Procurement in Lesotho. Law and Development Review, 11(2), 397-431.

Transparency International. (2019). FAQs on corruption. Retrieved from http://www.transparency.org/whoweare/organisation/faqs_on_corruption.

Walton, G. W. (2013). The limitations of neoliberal logic in the anti-corruption industry: Lessons from Papua New Guinea. Crime Law and Social Change, 60(2), 147-164.

Walton, G. W. (2016). Gramsci's activists: How local civil society is shaped by the anti-corruption industry, political society, and translocal encounters. Political Geography, 53, 10-19.

Wibisana, A. G., dan Marbun, A. N. (2018). Corporate Criminal Liability in Indonesia Anti-Corruption Law: Does It Work Properly? Asian Journal of Law and Economics, 9(1).

Wibowo, R. A. (2018). When anti-corruption norms lead to undesirable results: learning from the Indonesian experience. Crime Law and Social Change, 70(3), 383-396.