Meretas Konsep Baru Pidana Denda Terhadap Tindak Pidana Korupsi Analisis Komparatif dengan Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Amerika Serikat, Bribery Act Inggris, dan Wetboek van Strafrecht Belanda

Main Article Content

Dion Valerian

Abstract

Indonesian Anti-Corruption Act stipulates its criminal fines provision by determining a fixed amount of fines in its criminal offences formulation. This article analyses and compares the concept of criminal fines in the Indonesian Anti-Corruption Act, the United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, United Kingdom Bribery Act, and the Dutch Criminal Code. The study found that each of the aforementioned US, UK, and Dutch anti-bribery laws have its distinctive concept to overcome the problem of criminal fines provision’s astringency that could be used in the Indonesian Anti-Corruption Act reform.

Article Details

Section
Articles

References

Abidin, A.Z. dan A. Hamzah. (2002). Bentuk-bentuk Khusus Perwujudan Delik (Percobaan, Penyertaan dan Gabungan Delik) dan Hukum Penetensier. Sumber Ilmu Jaya. Jakarta.

Amaee, R. dan K. Sandford. (2019). The United Kingdom. Dalam From Baksheesh to Bribery: Understanding the Global Fight Against Corruption and Graft. Editor T.M. Funk dan A.S. Boutros. Oxford University Press. The United States of America.

Arief, B.N. (2014). Kebijakan Hukum Pidana: Perkembangan Penyusunan Konsep KUHP Baru. Kencana. Jakarta.

Bagaric, M. (2000). Proportionality in Sentencing: its Justification, Meaning, and Role. Current Issues in Criminal Justice, Vol. 12, Number 2, November 2000, hlm 145-165.

Biegelman, M.T. dan D.R. Biegelman. (2010). Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Compliance Guidebook: Protecting Your Organization from Bribery and Corruption. John Wiley & Sons. Hoboken, N.J.

Burrell, P. dan S. Osborn-King. (2018). Fines, Disgorgement, Injunctions, Disbarment: The UK Perspective. Dalam The Practitioner’s Guide to Global Investigations Volume I: Global Investigations in the United Kingdom and the United States. Editor J. Seddon et al. Law Business Research Ltd. The United Kingdom.

Deming, S.H. (2014). Anti-Bribery Laws in Common Law Jurisdictions. Oxford University Press. The United States of America.

Feldis, K. (2016). Investigating and Prosecuting Transnational Corruption and Bribery. Presentasi pada International Business Integrity Conference (IBIC) 2016. 16-17 November 2016. Jakarta.

Ferguson, G. (2017). Global Corruption: Law, Theory, and Practice. International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy. Vancouver, BC, CA.

Funk, T.M. dan A.S. Boutros. (2019). Deferred Prosecution Agreements, Nonprosecution Agreements, and Corporate Integrity Agreements. Dalam From Baksheesh to Bribery: Understanding the Global Fight Against Corruption and Graft. Editor T.M. Funk dan A.S. Boutros. Oxford University Press. The United States of America.

Goh, J. (2013). Proportionality – An Attainable Ideal in the Criminal Justice System. Manchester Student Law Review, Vol 2: 41, 2013, hlm. 41-72.

Hamzah, A. (2012). Pemberantasan Korupsi Melalui Hukum Pidana Nasional dan Internasional. Rajawali Pers. Jakarta.

Hartman, B.M. et al. (2012). Sixth Amendment Requirement That Juries Find Facts Necessary to Impose Fines Above Statutory Maximum Raises New Questions for Environmental Prosecutions. K&L Gates Legal Insight.

Hiariej, E.O.S. (2014). Prinsip-prinsip Hukum Pidana. Cahaya Atma Pustaka. Yogyakarta.

http://www.ejtn.eu/PageFiles/6533/2014%20seminars/Omsenie/WetboekvanStrafrecht_ENG_PV.pdf. 10 Agustus 2019 (21:01).

https://thelawdictionary.org/summary-conviction/. 10 Agustus 2019 (21:00).

https://wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0001854/2018-01-01#BoekEerste_TiteldeelII. 10 Agustus 2019 (21:04).

https://www.gov.uk/government/news/unlimited-fines-for-serious-offences. 10 Agustus 2019 (21:02).

https://www.linklaters.com/en/insights/publications/uk-corporate-update/uk-corporate-update---1-april-2015/statutory-maximum-fine-now-unlimited. 10 Agustus 2019 (21:03).

Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana Indonesia.

Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi. (2006). Memahami untuk Membasmi. KPK. Jakarta.

Kooijmans, T. (2003). The Netherlands. Dalam L’Harmonisation des Sanctions Penales en Europe (Unite mixte de recherché de droit compare de Paris). Editor M. Delmas-Marty et. al. Societe de legislation comparee. Paris.

Kriekhoff, V.J. (2016). Penelitian Hukum Normatif dalam Hukum Pidana: Metode dan Aplikasinya. Dalam Demi Keadilan: Antologi Hukum dan Sistem Peradilan Pidana. Editor J. Rizal dan Suhariyono A.R. Kemang. Jakarta.

Lamintang, P.A.F. dan T. Lamintang. (2017). Hukum Penitensier Indonesia. Sinar Grafika. Jakarta.

Loughman, B.P. dan R.A. Sibery. (2012). Bribery and Corruption: Navigating the Global Risks. John Wiley & Sons. Hoboken, NJ.

Maradona. (2018). Corporate Criminal Liability in Indonesia: Regulation, Implementation, and Comparison with The Netherlands. Doctoral Dissertation. Erasmus University Rotterdam. The Netherlands.

Marzuki, P.M. (2011). Penelitian Hukum. Kencana. Jakarta.

Mitchell, R.D. (2018). Fines, Disgorgement, Injunctions, Debarment: The US Perspective. Dalam The Practitioner’s Guide to Global Investigations Volume I: Global Investigations in the United Kingdom and the United States. Editor J. Seddon et al. Law Business Research Ltd. The United Kingdom.

Murphy, A.G. (2011). Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: A Practical Resource for Manager and Executives. Wiley. Hoboken, N.J.

O’Shea, E. (2011). The Bribery Act 2010: A Practical Guide. Jordan Publishing. Bristol.

Olsen, W.P. (2010). The Anti-Corruption Handbook: How to Protect Your Business in the Global Marketplace. John Wiley & Sons. Hoboken, NJ.

Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 18 Tahun 1960. Perubahan Jumlah Hukuman Denda dalam Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana dan dalam Ketentuan-ketentuan Pidana Lainnya yang Dikeluarkan Sebelum Tanggal 17 Agustus 1945.

Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 21 Tahun 1959. Memperberat Ancaman Hukuman terhadap Tindak Pidana Ekonomi.

Rancangan Undang-Undang tentang Hukum Pidana Indonesia.

Reksodiputro, M. (1989). Hukum Positif mengenai Kejahatan Ekonomi dan Perkembangannya di Indonesia. Jurnal Hukum & Pembangunan, Vol. 19 No. 1, 1989, hlm. 38-49.

Samosir, C.D. (2016). Penologi dan Pemasyarakatan. Nuansa Aulia. Bandung.

Simanjuntak, J.T. et. al. (Forthcoming). Sanksi Pidana dan Pola Pengancaman Pidana dalam RUU Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Korupsi.

Soesilo, R. (1995). Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana (KUHP) Serta Komentar-Komentarnya Lengkap Pasal Demi Pasal. Politeia. Bogor.

Suhariyono A.R. (2012). Pembaruan Pidana Denda di Indonesia: Pidana Denda sebagai Sanksi Alternatif. Papas Sinar Sinanti. Depok.

Syarif, L.M. dan D. Valerian. (Forthcoming). Deferred Prosecution Agreement (DPA): Konsep dan Analisis Kompatibilitas Penerapannya di Indonesia.

Tak, P.J.P. (2003). The Dutch Criminal Justice System: Organization and Operation. The University of Nijmegen.

Tarun, R.W. dan P.P. Tomczak. (2019). The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Handbook: A Practical Guide for Multinational Counsel, Transactional Lawyers, and White Collar Criminal Practitioners. American Bar Association. Lanham.

Undang-Undang Darurat Republik Indonesia Nomor 7 Tahun 1955. Pengusutan, Penuntutan dan Peradilan Tindak Pidana Ekonomi.
Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 20 Tahun 2001. Perubahan atas Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 31 Tahun 1999 tentang Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Korupsi.

Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 31 Tahun 1999. Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Korupsi.

Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 32 Tahun 2009. Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup.

Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 35 Tahun 2009. Narkotika.

Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 8 Tahun 2010. Pencegahan dan Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Pencucian Uang.

United Kingdom Bribery Act 2010.

The United Kingdom Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Act 2012 (Fines on Summary Conviction) Regulations 2015.

United Kingdom Ministry of Justice (a). (2010). Bribery Act, 2010 Explanatory Notes.

United Kingdom Ministry of Justice (b). (2011). The Bribery Act 2010 Guidance about procedures which relevant commercial organizations can put into place to prevent persons associated with them from bribing (section 9 of the Bribery Act 2010).

The United States Alternative Fines Act.

United States Department of Justice dan United States Securities and Exchange Commission. (2012). FCPA: A Resource Guide to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. US Department of Justice dan US Securities and Exchange Commission. Washington, D.C.

The United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

United States Sentencing Commission. (2018). Federal Sentencing: The Basics. United States Sentencing Commission. Washington, D.C.

United States Supreme Court (a). (2012). Southern Union Co. v. United States, Syllabus.

United States Supreme Court (b). (2000). Apprendi v. New Jersey, Syllabus.

United States Supreme Court (c). (2000). Charles C. Apprendi, Jr., Petitioner v. New Jersey, No. 99-478.

United States Supreme Court (d). (2012). Southern Union Company, Petitioner v. United States, No. 11-94.

UNODC. Country Review Report of the Netherlands.

Utrecht, E. (1994). Rangkaian Sari Kuliah Hukum Pidana II. Tinta Mas. Surabaya.

Verbruggen, A. (2018). Netherlands. Dalam The Anti-Bribery and Anti-Corruption Review. Editor M.F. Mendelsohn. Law Business Research. United Kingdom.

Von Hirsch, A. (1992). Proportionality in the Philosophy of Punishment. Crime and Justice, Vol. 16, hlm. 55-98.

Wetboek van Strafrecht Belanda.

Wignjosoebroto, W. (2011). Ragam-ragam Penelitian Hukum. Dalam Metode Penelitian Hukum: Konstelasi dan Refleksi. Editor S. Irianto dan Sidharta, Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia. Jakarta.