Menciptakan Ruang Siber yang Kondusif bagi Pegiat Anti-Korupsi

Main Article Content

Wijayanto Wijayanto
Nur Hidayat Sardini
Gita N. Elsitra

Abstract

This research aims to reflect cyber-terror cases in the anti-corruption movement by Indonesian scholars in protest against the revision of the KPK Law in September 2019 and formulates the alternative solutions for anti-corruption activists’ cyber safety in the digital era. Based on focus group discussion with anti-corruption scholar activists and digital ethnography, this research found that, in general, anti-corruption activist prone to cyber-terror, and it weakened their movement. For strengthening the anti-corruption movement in the digital era, this research formulated three alternative solutions, which are: 1) strengthening consolidation of civil society organizations; 2) supporting the formulation of comprehensive cyber regulations; and 3) implementing campus mitigation. Those solutions could be the foundation for fulfilling and guaranteeing anti-corruption activists’ digital rights, especially for the freedom of expression and right to be protected in cyber-space, which is crucial for digital democracy in Indonesia.

Article Details

Section
Articles

References

Aspinall, E., Fossati, D., Muhtadi, B., & Warburton, E. (2020). Elites, masses, and democratic decline in Indonesia. Democratization, 27(4), 505–526. https://doi.org/10.1080/13510347.2019.1680971

Beggs, C. (2007). Cyber-Terrorism in Australia. In M. Quigley (Ed.), Encyclopedia of information ethics and security. IGI Global.

Cassim, F. (2012). Addressing The Spectre of Cyber Terrorism: A Comparative Perspective. 15(2).

Cavelty, M. D. (2007). Looming Threat or Phantom Menace ? The Framing of the US Cyber-Threat Debate. Journal of Information Technology, 4(1), 19–37. https://doi.org/10.1300/J516v04n01

Cho, K. S. (2020). Responding to Campus Racism: Analyzing Student Activism and Institutional Responses. University of California.

Cohen, D. (2014). Cyber terrorism: Case studies. In Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism Investigator’s Handbook. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800743-3.00013-X

Debrix, F. (2001). Cyberterror and Media-Induced Fears: The Production of Emergency Culture. Strategies: Journal of Theory, Culture & Politics, 14(1), 149–168. https://doi.org/10.1080/10402130120042415

Denning, D. E. (2011). 10 Years after September 11 Whither Cyber Terror ? A Social Science Research Council Essay Forum, 11–13.

Dobber, T., Fathaigh, R., & Zuiderveen Borgesius, F. J. (2019). The regulation of online political micro-targeting in Europe. Internet Policy Review, 8(4), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.14763/2019.4.1440

Fauzanafi, M. Z. (2016). Searching for digital citizenship: Fighting corruption in Banten, Indonesia. Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 9(2), 289–294. https://doi.org/10.14764/10.ASEAS-2016.2-7

Fransen, L., Dupuy, K., Hinfelaar, M., Mazumder, S. M. Z., & Sharp, W. (2020). Adjust, Resist or Disband? The effect of political repression on civil society organizations in Bangladesh and Zambia. Leiden.

Frantz, E., Kendall-Taylor, A., & Wright, J. (2020). Digital Repression in Autocracies. (March), 1–54. Retrieved from www.v-dem.net.

Gross, M. L., Canetti, D., & Vashdi, D. R. (2016). The psychological effects of cyber terrorism. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 72(5), 284–291. https://doi.org/10.1080/00963402.2016.1216502

Gross, M. L., Canetti, D., & Vashdi, D. R. (2017). Cyberterrorism: Its effects on psychological well-being, public confidence and political attitudes. Journal of Cybersecurity, 3(1), 49–58. https://doi.org/10.1093/cybsec/tyw018

Gunitsky, S. (2015). Corrupting the cyber-commons: Social media as a tool of autocratic stability. Perspectives on Politics, 13(1), 42–54. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592714003120

Holt, T. J. (2012). Exploring the intersections of technology, crime, and terror. Terrorism and Political Violence, 24(2), 337–354. https://doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2011.648350

Hua, J., & Bapna, S. (2012). How Can We Deter Cyber Terrorism? Information Security Journal, 21(2), 102–114. https://doi.org/10.1080/19393555.2011.647250

Jones, A. (2005). Cyber terrorism: Fact or fiction. Computer Fraud and Security, 2005(6), 4–7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1361-3723(05)70220-7

Jurriëns, E., & Tapsell, R. (2017). Challenges and opportunities of the digital ‘revolution’ in Indonesia. Digital Indonesia: Connectivity and Divergence, 2020, 275–288. https://doi.org/10.1355/9789814786003-007

Kaplan, A., & Weimann, G. (2011). Freedom and terror: Reason and unreason in politics. In Freedom and Terror: Reason and Unreason in Politics. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203831205

King, G., Pan, J., & Roberts, M. E. (2013). How censorship in China allows government criticism but silences collective expression. American Political Science Review, 107(2), 326–343. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055413000014

Krapp, P. (2005). Terror and play, or what was hacktivism? Grey Room, (21), 71–93. https://doi.org/10.1162/152638105774539770

Kurniawan, N. I., & Rye, S. A. (2013). Online environmental activism and Internet use in the Indonesian environmental movement. Information Development. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266666913485260

Lewis, J. (2003). Cyber terror: Missing in action. Knowledge, Technology, & Policy, 16(2), 145–153. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315130712-9

Lim, M. (2013). Many Clicks but Little Sticks: Social Media Activism in Indonesia. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 43(4), 636–657. https://doi.org/10.1080/00472336.2013.769386

Lubua, E. W., & Pretorius, P. D. (2019). Cyber-security policy framework and procedural compliance in public organisations. Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, (July), 1847–1856.

Luiijf, E. (2012). Understanding cyber threats and vulnerabilities. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Including Subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), 7130, 52–67. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-28920-0_4

Luiijf, E. (2014). Definitions of Cyber Terrorism. In Cyber Crime and Cyber Terrorism Investigator’s Handbook. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800743-3.00002-5

Mietzner, M. (2018). Fighting Illiberalism with Illiberalism: Islamist Populism and Democratic Deconsolidation in Indonesia. Pacific Affairs, 91(June), 261–282. https://doi.org/10.1080/00324728.2012.754486

Mietzner, M. (2020). Populist Anti-Scientism, Religious Polarisation, and Institutionalised Corruption: How Indonesia’s Democratic Decline Shaped Its COVID-19 Response. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, 39(2), 227–249. https://doi.org/10.1177/1868103420935561

Pollitt, M. M. (1998). Cyberterrorism — fact or fancy? Computer Fraud & Security, 1998(2), 8–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1361-3723(00)87009-8

Power, T., & Warburton, E. (2020). The decline of Indonesian democracy. In T. Power & E. Warburton (Eds.), Democracy in Indonesia: From Stagnation to Regression? (pp. 1–20). Singapore: ISEAS – Yusof Ishak Institute. https://doi.org/10.1355/9789814881524-006

Qin, B., Strömberg, D., & Wu, Y. (2017). Why does China allow freer social media? Protests versus surveillance and propaganda. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31(1), 117–140. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.31.1.117

Safenet. (2020). Bangkitnya Otoritarian Digital. Denpasar.

ShockwaveWriter. (2000). Is it Cyber-Terrorism, Techno-Terrorism, or None of the Above? Computer Fraud & Security, 2000(7), 18–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1361-3723(00)89015-6

Singh, B. (2011). Why Successful Counter-Terrorism Can Beget More Terrorism? Indonesia Since The 2002 Bali Bombings. In E. Noor (Ed.), Proceeding of Southeast Asia Regional Center for Counter Terrorism’s (SEARCCT) Selection of Articles: Vol. Volume 2/2. Kuala Lumpur: Southeast Asia Regional Centre for Counter-Terrorism (SEARCCT). https://doi.org/10.1017/S002246341400006X

Tapsell, R. (2017) Media power in Indonesia: Oligarchs, citizens and the digital revolution. Rowman & Littlefield International.

Toepler, S., Zimmer, A., Fröhlich, C., & Obuch, K. (2020). The Changing Space for NGOs: Civil Society in Authoritarian and Hybrid Regimes. Voluntas, 31(4), 649–662. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-020-00240-7

Veerasamy, N. (2020). Cyberterrorism – the spectre that is the convergence of the physical and virtual worlds. In Emerging Cyber Threats and Cognitive Vulnerabilities. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-816203-3.00002-2

Wachter, S., & Mittelstadt, B. (2019). A right to reasonable inferences: Re-thinking data protection law in the age of Big Data and AI. Columbia Business Law Review, 2(2), 443–493. https://doi.org/10.31228/osf.io/mu2kf

Warren, M. J. (2007). Hackers and Cyber Terrorists. In M. Quigley (Ed.), Encyclopedia of information ethics and security. Singapore: IGI Global.

Weimann, G. (2005). Cyberterrorism: The sum of all fears? Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 28(2), 129–149. https://doi.org/10.1080/10576100590905110

Weimann, G. (2014). New Terrorism and New Media. Communicating Unreality, 2. Retrieved from http://www.wilsoncenter.org/staff/gabriel-weimann.

Wijayanto. (2020). Democratic Regression and Authoritarian Practices in Indonesia. Indonesian Journal of Political Research, 1(December).

Wijayanto, W., Ardianto, H., & Astuti, E. S. (2020). Campaigning Online and Offline: The use of YouTube Movie in the Movement Against Environmental Destruction in the Movie “Samin vs Semen.” ICIPSE 2019. Semarang. https://doi.org/10.4108/eai.21-10-2019.2294459

Wilson, M. P. (2020). The Politics of Privacy Protection: an Analysis of Resistance to Metadata Retention and Encryption Access Laws. Queensland University of Technology.

Xu, X. (2020). To Repress or to Co-opt? Authoritarian Control in the Age of Digital Surveillance. American Journal of Political Science. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajps.12514

Yunos, Z., & Hafidz, S. (2011). Cyber Terrorism And Terrorist Use of ICT and Cyberspace. In E. Noor (Ed.), The Problem with Cyber Terrorism. Kuala Lumpur: Southeast Asia Regional Centre for Counter-Terrorism (SEARCCT).