Hidden Meanings of New Anti-corruption Movements in Indonesia after 1998: A Mapping Literature

Main Article Content

Muh Afit Khomsani
Ani Widyani Soetjipto


This article examines concealed meanings of new anti-corruption social movements in Indonesia. The researchers explain the roles of civil society movements in shaping a new social and political structure in Indonesia in the post-reform of 1998. The research method is an intensive literature review by collecting and analyzing journal articles and books related to the article’s topic. The authors reveal that new social movements on anti-corruption issues show various features in their actions by utilizing social media and cultural fields to obtain broader support from society. Besides, the actors have become an epistemic community whose roles create breakthroughs for society.



Artikel ini mengkaji makna tersembunyi tentang gerakan sosial baru dalam isu antikorupsi di Indonesia. Peneliti menjelaskan peran gerakan masyarakat sipil dalam membentuk struktur sosial dan politik baru di Indonesia pasca reformasi 1998. Metode penelitian ini adalah studi literatur intensif dengan mengumpulkan dan menganalisis artikel jurnal dan buku yang terkait dengan topik artikel ini. Penulis menyimpulkan bahwa gerakan sosial dalam isu antikorupsi menunjukkan berbagai ciri dalam tindakan mereka. dengan memanfaatkan media sosial dan arena kebudayaan yang ada untuk mendapatkan dukungan yang lebih luas dari masyarakat. Selain itu, para aktor yang terlibat dalam gerakan tersebut telah menjadi komunitas epistemik yang mampu melahirkan gerakan dan peran penting di masyarakat.

Article Details

How to Cite
Khomsani, M. A., & Soetjipto, A. W. . (2022). Hidden Meanings of New Anti-corruption Movements in Indonesia after 1998: A Mapping Literature. Integritas : Jurnal Antikorupsi, 7(2), 263–278. https://doi.org/10.32697/integritas.v7i2.816


Aberle, D. F., & Moore, H. C. (1982). The peyote religion among the Navaho: University of Oklahoma Press.

Aspinall, E. (2005). Opposing Suharto: compromise, resistance, and regime change in Indonesia: Stanford University Press.

Azra, A. (2010). Islam, corruption, good governance, and civil society: The Indonesian Experience. ICR Journal, 2(1), 109-125.

Brandt, K.-W. (1986). New social movements as a metapolitical challenge: the social and political impact of a new historical type of protest. Thesis Eleven, 15(1), 60-68.

Buechler, S. M. (1995). New social movement theories. The Sociological Quarterly, 36(3), 441-464.

Clarke, G. (2016). Governance and transnational civil society: the problem of transnational rent-seeking. Journal of Civil Society, 12(1), 82-100.

Collingwood, V. (2006). Non-governmental organisations, power and legitimacy in international society. Review of International Studies, 32(3), 439-454.

Crawford, G., & Hermawan, Y. P. (2002). Whose agenda? "partnership" and international assistance to democratization and governance reform in Indonesia. Contemporary Southeast Asia, 24(2), 203-229.

Davidson, J. S. (2007). Politics-as-usual on trial: regional anti-corruption campaigns in Indonesia. The Pacific Review, 20(1), 75-99.

Dibley, T., & Ford, M. (2019). Activists in transition. In D. Thushara & F. Michele (Eds.), Introduction: Social Movements and Democratization in Indonesia (pp. 1-22): Cornell University Press.

Eigen, P. (2013). International corruption: organized civil society for better global governance. Social Research, 80(4), 1287-1308.

Epakartika, E., Murnawan, R. N., & Budiono, A. (2019). Peran masyarakat sipil dalam pemberantasan korupsi: pembelajaran dari gerakan nasional penyelamatan sumber daya alam (GNPSDA). Integritas: Jurnal Antikorupsi, 5(2-2), 93-106.

Ganie-Rochman, M., & Achwan, R. (2009). Civic organisations and governance reform in Indonesian Cities. Asian Journal of Social Science, 37(5), 799-820.

Ganie-Rochman, M., & Achwan, R. (2016). Corruption in Indonesia’s emerging democracy. Journal of Developing Societies, 32(2), 159-177.

Gurr, T. R. (2016). Why men rebel. New York: Routledge.

Gutterman, E. (2014). The legitimacy of transnational NGOs: Lessons from the experience of transparency international in Germany and France. Review of International Studies, 40(2), 391-418.

Habermas, J. (2015). The theory of communicative action: lifeworld and systems, a critique of functionalist reason, (Vol. 2): John Wiley & Sons.

Hamilton-Hart, N. (2001). Anti-corruption strategies in Indonesia. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 37(1), 65-82.

Haque, M. S. (2020). A critique of the Role of NGO as partners in governance. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Administration, 42(1), 17-32.

Harasymiw, B. (2019). Civil Society as an anti-corruption actor in post-Euromaidan Ukraine. Canadian Slavonic Papers, 61(3), 288-320.

Hough, D. (2013). The rise and rise of the global anti-corruption movement. In Corruption, Anti-Corruption, and Governance (pp. 12-30). London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Hunt, S. A., Benford, R. D., & Snow, D. A. (1994). Identity fields framing processes and the social construction of movement identities. In E. Laraña, H. Johnston, & J. R. Gusfield (Eds.), New Social Movements (pp. 185-208): Temple University Press.

Inglehart, R. (2015). The silent revolution: changing values and political styles among western publics: Princeton University Press.

Jamil, A. (2018). Social movements in framing perspectives: a study on corruption case issues in Indonesia. Jurnal Komunikasi Indonesia, 7(2), 174-191.

Johnston, M. (2012). Building a social movement against corruption. The Brown Journal of World Affairs, 18(2), 57-74.

Juwono, V. (2016). Berantas korupsi: a political history of governance reform and anti-corruption initiatives in Indonesia 1945-2014. The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE),

Keck, M. E., & Sikkink, K. (1998). Activists beyond borders: advocacy networks in international politics: Cornell University Press.

King, P. (2006). Korupsi dan disintegrasi in indonesia since Suharto. Policy and Society, 25(4), 3-22. doi:10.1016/S1449-4035(06)70087-X

Koven, S. G. (2019). Toward a strategy for combating corruption. International Journal of Public Administration, 42(8), 677-684.

Kramer, E. (2013). When news becomes entertainment: Representations of corruption in Indonesia’s media and the implication of scandal. Media Asia, 40(1), 60-72. doi:10.1080/01296612.2013.11689951

Kramer, E. (2019). Activists in transition. In D. Thushara & F. Michele (Eds.), Chapter Two. Democratization and Indonesia’s Anticorruption Movement (pp. 41-60): Cornell University Press.

Lay, C. (2017). Political linkages between CSOs and parliament in Indonesia: a case study of political linkages in drafting the Aceh Governance Law. Asian Journal of Political Science, 25(1), 130-150. doi:10.1080/02185377.2017.1297243

McAdam, D. (2000). Culture and social movements. In Culture and politics (pp. 253-268): Springer.

McAdam, D., Tarrow, S., & Tilly, C. (2003). Dynamics of Contention. Social Movement Studies, 2(1), 99-102.

Molaei, H. (2015). Discursive opportunity structure and the contribution of social media to the success of social movements in Indonesia. Information, Communication & Society, 18(1), 94-108.

Molaei, H. (2015). Discursive opportunity structure and the contribution of social media to the success of social movements in Indonesia. Information Communication and Society, 18(1), 94-108. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2014.934388

Pal, L. A., & Spence, J. (2020). Event-focused network analysis: a case study of anti-corruption networks. Policy and Society, 39(1), 91-112.

Prabowo, H. Y., Hamdani, R., & Sanusi, Z. M. (2018). The new face of people power: an exploratory study on the potential of social media for combating corruption in Indonesia. Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal, 12(3), 19-20.

Prasisko, Y. G. (2016). Gerakan sosial baru Indonesia: Reformasi 1998 dan proses demokratisasi Indonesia. Jurnal Pemikiran Sosiologi, 3(2), 9-16.

Rahutomo, R., Budiarto, A., Purwandari, K., Perbangsa, A. S., Cenggoro, T. W., & Pardamean, B. (2020). Ten-year compilation of #savekpk twitter dataset. Paper presented at the 5th International Conference on Information Management and Technology, ICIMTech 2020.

Robertson-Snape, F. (1999). Corruption, collusion, and nepotism in Indonesia. Third World Quarterly, 20(3), 589-602.

Rodan, G., & Hughes, C. (2012). Ideological coalitions and the international promotion of social accountability: The Philippines and Cambodia Compared. International Studies Quarterly, 56(2), 367-380.

Rucht, D. (1988). Themes, logics, and arenas of social movements: a structural approach. International Social Movement Research, 1(1), 305-328.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.

Schütte, S. A. (2012). Against the odds: anti-corruption reform in Indonesia. Public Administration and Development, 32(1), 38-48. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/pad.623

Setiawan, K. (2009). Max Lane. unfinished nation. Indonesia before and after Suharto. International Review of Social History, 54(3), 529-532.

Setiyono, B., & McLeod, R. H. (2010). Civil society organisations' contribution to the anti-corruption movement in Indonesia. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, 46(3), 347-370.

Shokheh, M., Ebrahimi, M., & Yusoff, K. (2021). The role of Indonesian and Egyptians’ NGOs in democratization. Geopolitics Quarterly, 17(64), 289-306. Retrieved from https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85112464293&partnerID=40&md5=0ae3b7954bc12df1500e35df9cefa8b3

Silva-Leander, A. (2015). The role and influence of nongovernmental organisations on anti-corruption policy reform in Indonesia. The London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE),

Sklair, L. (1995). Social movements and global capitalism. Sociology, 29(3), 495-512.

Slaughter, S. (2019). Interpreting civil society engagement with the G20: the qualified inclusion of the 2014 civil 20 process. Globalizations, 16(1), 36-49.

Smith, J., Pagnucco, R., & Romeril, W. (1994). Transnational social movement organisations in the global political arena. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 5(2), 121-154.

Soetjipto, A. W., Yuliestiana, A. T. D., Suryani, D. P. S., Kinanthi, D. K., Tamzil, C. F., Parameswari, P., & Waworuntu, A. (2018). Transnasionalisme: Peran aktor non negara dalam hubungan internasional (A. W. Soetjipto Ed.): Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.

Sulistyo, P. B. (2018). Social and political factors in actualizing new anti-corruption movement through online community in Indonesia. International Journal, 5(1).

Sulistyo, P. B., & Azmawati, A. A. (2016). The roles of facebook in creating new anti-corruption social movement through online community in Indonesia. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 6(7), 33-37.

Suraji, S. (2015). Sejarah panjang korupsi di indonesia dan upaya pemberantasannya. Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik, 14.

Suwana, F. (2020). What motivates digital activism? The case of the Save KPK movement in Indonesia. Information Communication and Society, 23(9), 1295-1310. doi:10.1080/1369118X.2018.1563205

Suwana, F. (2020). What motivates digital activism? the case of the save KPK movement in Indonesia. Information, Communication & Society, 23(9), 1295-1310.

Tarrow, S. (2005). The new transnational activism. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Tarrow, S. G. (2011). Power in movement: social movements and contentious politics (III ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Tilly, C. (2004). Social movements, 1768-2004. Colorado: Paradigm.

Tomsa, D. (2015). Local politics and corruption in Indonesia's outer islands. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 171(2/3), 196-219.

Torraco, R. J. (2005). Writing integrative literature reviews: guidelines and examples. Human Resource Development Review, 4(3), 356-367.

Umam, A. K., Whitehouse, G., Head, B., & Adil Khan, M. (2020). Addressing corruption in Post-Soeharto Indonesia: The role of the corruption eradication commission. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 50(1), 125-143.

Verdenicci, S., & Hough, D. (2015). People power and anti-corruption; demystifying citizen-centred approaches. Crime, Law and Social Change, 64(1), 23-35.

Villanueva, P. A. G. (2020). Why civil society cannot battle it all alone: the roles of civil society environment, transparent laws and quality of public administration in political corruption mitigation. International Journal of Public Administration, 43(6), 552-561.

Walton, G. W. (2016). Gramsci's activists: how local civil society is shaped by the anti-corruption industry, political society and translocal encounters. Political Geography, 53, 10-19.

Warf, B. (2016). Global geographies of corruption. GeoJournal, 81(5), 657-669. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/44076432

Widojoko, J. D. (2017). Indonesia’s anticorruption campaign: civil society versus the political cartel. In M. dela Rama & C. Rowley (Eds.), The Changing Face of Corruption in the Asia Pacific (pp. 253-266): Elsevier.

Widoyoko, J. D. (2016). Menimbang peluang Jokowi memberantas korupsi: Catatan untuk gerakan anti korupsi. Integritas: Jurnal Antikorupsi, 2(1), 269-297.

Yuliestiana, A. T. D. (2019). Narasi tentang advokasi transnasional dalam self-determination Timor Timur. In A. W. Soetjipto (Ed.), Transnasionalisme: Peran Aktor non Negara dalam Hubungan Internasional (pp. 47-76). Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.

Zainal, W. Y., Nazar, J., Z, Y. F., & Irwan, I. (2021). Efektifitas masyarakat sipil di Kenagarian Kab. Lima Puluh Kota dalam mewujudkan pemilihan umum demokratis. Integritas: Jurnal Antikorupsi, 7(1), 79-100.