Anti-corruption system 4.0: The adoption of blockchain technology in the public sector

Main Article Content

Ilima Fitri Azmi
Alih Aji Nugroho


Countries are using various sophisticated information technologies to help provide quality and transparent services. This research aims to explore the potential and models of using blockchain technology to overcome corruption problems in Indonesia. Proper utilisation of blockchain technology can increase accountability and reduce loopholes in corrupt practices. Blockchain is a distributed database with records (ledgers) shared by all network participants. Smart contract as a form of blockchain can help make the process more transparent and trackable. Since blockchain is a relatively new technology, very few studies have been done to explain its potential in the public sector, particularly with regards to issues of corruption. This study develops a model for the application of blockchain technology and conducts an in-depth analysis of its possibilities using a qualitative method and an exploratory approach. In-depth interviews, designed to get a big picture view of the blockchain development model in the public sector were conducted with several sources, namely the Director General of Asset Tracing KPK (Indonesian Anti-Corruption Commission), KPK Public Prosecutors, the KPK IT department, WIr Group, Financial and Development Oversight Agency (BPKP), and blockchain practitioners. The research was conducted between August and December 2022. The study's findings demonstrate how promising it is to use blockchain technology to lessen corruption. Distributed ledgers give governments new ways to improve transparency. The model that can be applied is ‘permissioned blockchain’ because it has a private nature. Blockchain application requires top management support, organisational readiness, and organisational support. To deepen understanding, further experimental research is needed to test the model.

Article Details

How to Cite
Azmi, I. F., & Nugroho, A. A. (2023). Anti-corruption system 4.0: The adoption of blockchain technology in the public sector. Integritas : Jurnal Antikorupsi, 9(1), 93–108.


Corruption Perceptions Index - Explore the… - (n.d.).

Aarvik, P. (2020). Blockchain as an anti-corruption tool: case examples and introduction to the technology (2020:7).

Afolabi, A., Ibem, E., Aduwo, E., & Tunji-Olayeni, P. (2022). Digitizing the grey areas in the Nigerian public procurement system using e-Procurement technologies. International Journal of Construction Management, 22(12), 2215–2224.

Aggarwal, N., & Floridi, L. (2018). The opportunities and challenges of blockchain in the fight against government corruption - PhilPapers (19th General Activity Report (2018)).

Ali, S., & Green, P. (2005). Determinants of effective information technology governance: a study of IT intensity. Proceedings of International IT Governance Conference.

Alketbi, A., Nasir, Q., & Abu Talib, M. (2020). Novel blockchain reference model for government services: Dubai government case study. International Journal of System Assurance Engineering and Management 2020 11:6, 11(6), 1170–1191.

Astuti, P. (2013). Politik korupsi : kendala sistemik pemberantasan korupsi di Indonesia. Politika: Jurnal Ilmu Politik, 2(1), 5–17.

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2020). Indeks perilaku anti korupsi 2020. Badan Pusat Statistik.

Batubara, F. R., Ubacht, J., & Janssen, M. (2018). Challenges of blockchain technology adoption for e-government: A systematic literature review. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series.

Britchenko, I., & Cherniavska, T. (2019). Blockchain technology in the fiscal process of Ukraine. Economic Studies, 28(5), 134–147.

Casallas, T., Alexandra, J., Manuel, J., Molano, R., & Ignacio, J. (2020). Smart contracts with blockchain in the public sector. International Journal of Interactive Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence, 6(3), 63–72.

Clavin, J., Duan, S., Zhang, H., Janeja, V. P., Joshi, K. P., Yesha, Y., Erickson, L. C., Li, J. D., Zhang, H., Janeja, V. P., Joshi, K. P., Yesha, Y., Erickson, L. C., Associ-, A., & Li, J. D. (2020). Blockchains for government. Digital Government: Research and Practice, 1(3), 22.

Clohessy, T., Acton, T., Godfrey, R., & Houston, M. (2018). Organisational factors that influence the Blockchain adoption in Ireland: a study by J. E. Cairnes school of business & economics in association with the Blockchain Association of Ireland. National University of Ireland Galway.

Clohessy, T., Acton, T., & Rogers, N. (2019). Blockchain adoption: technological, organisational and environmental considerations. Business Transformation through Blockchain, 47–76.

De Souza, R. C., Luciano, E. M., & Wiedenhöft, G. C. (2018, May). The uses of the blockchain smart contracts reduce the levels of corruption: some preliminary thoughts. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series.

du Plessis, A. L., & Breed, G. (2013). A possible solution for corruption in South Africa with the church as initiator: A practical theological approach. HTS Teologiese Studies / Theological Studies, 69(2).

Efanov, D., & Roschin, P. (2018). The All-Pervasiveness of the Blockchain Technology. Procedia Computer Science, 123, 116–121.

Elliott, K. A. (2017). Corruption as an international policy problem. In A. J. Heidenheimer & M. Johnston (Eds.), Political Corruption (3rd editio, pp. 925–942). Routledge.

Elman, C., Gerring, J., & Mahoney, J. (Eds.). (2020). The production of knowledge: enhancing progress in Social Science. Cambridge University Press.

George, T. (2021, November). Exploratory research : definition, guide, & examples.

Global Risk Profile. (2021). Global corruption index | global corruption & ESG indexes.

Guo, J., Ding, X., & Wu, W. (2020). A blockchain-enabled ecosystem for distributed electricity trading in smart city. IEEE Internet of Things Journal.

Heeks, R. (1998). Information Technology and Public Sector Corruption. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Javier, F. (2021, September). ICW: angka penindakan kasus korupsi semester 1 2021 naik jika dibandingkan tahun sebelumnya - data Tempo.Co.

Kaplan, A. (2021). Cryptocurrency and corruption: auditing with Blockchain. 325–338.

Khan, S. N., Shael, M., & Majdalawieh, M. (2019). Blockchain technology as a support infrastructure in E-Government evolution at Dubai economic department. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 124–130.

Khosla, D., Sharma, M., Sharma, A., Budhiraja, A., & Singh, S. (2019). Blockchain Based Supply Chain Management: An Overview Article in International Journal of Control and Automation. International Journal of Control and Automation, 12(5), 424–430.

Klaveren, J. van. (2017). Corruption as a historical phenomenon. In A. J. Heidenheimer & M. Johnston (Eds.), Political Corruption (3rd ed., pp. 83–94). Routledge.

Kohli, R., & Liang, T. P. (2021). Special Section: Strategic Integration of Blockchain Technology into Organizations. Journal of Management Information Systems, 38(2), 282–287.

Kshetri, N., & Voas, J. (2018). Blockchain in developing countries. IT Professional, 20(2), 11–14.

Lapointe, C., & Fishbane, L. (2019). The blockchain ethical design framework. Innovations: Technology, Governance, Globalization, 12(3–4), 50–71.

Liu, Y., Lu, Q., Zhu, L., Paik, H.-Y., & Staples, M. (2021). A systematic literature review on blockchain governance. SSRN Electronic Journal.

Mahmood, M. (2005). Corruption in civil administration: causes and cures. Humanomics, 21(3), 62–84.

Miroslav, M., Miloš, M., Velimir, Š., Božo, D., & Dorde, L. (2014). Semantic technologies on the mission: Preventing corruption in public procurement. Computers in Industry, 65(5), 878–890.

Muliyawan. (2021). Korupsi dalam pusaran politik dan budaya.

Nath, V. (2003). Digital governance models: moving towards good governance in developing countries. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, 8(1), 1–15.

Novianto, R. D. (2018, May). KPK ungkap sejumlah faktor korupsi sulit diberantas. Sindonews.Com.

Oberhauser, D. (2019). Blockchain for environmental governance: can smart contracts reinforce payments for ecosystem services in Namibia? Frontiers in Blockchain, 0, 21.

Oye, N. D. (2013). Reducing corruption in African developing countries: the relevance of E-Governance. Greener Journal of Social Sciences, 3(1), 6–013.

Parenti, C., Noori, N., & Janssen, M. (2022). A smart governance diffusion model for blockchain as an anti-corruption tool in Smart Cities. Journal of Smart Cities and Society, 1(1), 71–92.

Pilkington, M., Crudu, R., & Grant, L. G. (2017). Blockchain and bitcoin as a way to lift a country out of poverty - tourism 2.0 and e-governance in the Republic of Moldova. International Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, 7(2), 115–143.

Priambodo, E. R., Falah, M., & Silaban, Y. P. (2020). Mengapa korupsi sulit diberantas. Jurnal Ilmu Hukum, Humaniora Dan Politik, 1(1), 30–41.

Rachman, F. (2018). Upaya penanggulangan tindak pidana korupsi di Indonesia. Jurnal Keadilan Progresif, 9(2).

Rajon, S. A. A., & Zaman, S. A. (2008). Implementation of e-Governance: Only way to build a corruption-Free Bangladesh. Proceedings of 11th International Conference on Computer and Information Technology, ICCIT 2008, 430–435.

Ratan, V. (2019, August). The best open source blockchain platforms - open source for you. OpenSourceForU.Com.

Razzaq, A., Khan, M. M., Talib, R., Dawood Butt, A., Hanif, N., & Raouf, M. R. (2019). Use of blockchain in governance: a systematic literature review. Article in International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 10(5).

Rose-Ackermann, S. (1975). The economics of corruption. Journal of Public Economics, 4(2), 187–203.

Santoso, L., Meyriswati, D., & Alfian, I. N. (2014). Korupsi dan mentalitas: kendala kultural dalam pemberantasan korupsi di Indonesia. Masyarakat, Kebudayaan Dan Politik, 27(4), 173.

Saputra, P. M. A. (2019). Corruption perception and bilateral trade flows: Evidence from developed and developing countries. Journal of International Studies, 12(1), 65–78.

Sarker, S., Henningsson, S., Jensen, T., & Hedman, J. (2021). Use of blockchain as a resource for combating corruption in Global Shipping: an interpretive case study. Journal of Management Information Systems, 38(2), 338–373.

Shava, E., & Hofisi, C. (2017). Challenges and opportunities for public administration in the fourth industrial revolution. African Journal of Public Affairs, 9(9), 203–215.

Sofyani, H., Riyadh, H. A., & Fahlevi, H. (2020). Improving service quality, accountability and transparency of local government: The intervening role of information technology governance. Cogent Business & Management, 7(1), 1735690.

Stockburger, L., Kokosioulis, G., Mukkamala, A., Mukkamala, R. R., & Avital, M. (2021). Blockchain-enabled decentralized identity management: The case of self-sovereign identity in public transportation. Blockchain: Research and Applications, 2(2), 100014.

Sung, C. S., & Park, J. Y. (2021). Understanding of blockchain-based identity management system adoption in the public sector. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 34(5), 1481–1505.

Taherdoost, H. (2022). A critical review of blockchain acceptance models—blockchain technology adoption frameworks and applications. Computers, 11(2), 24.

Tan, E., Mahula, S., & Crompvoets, J. (2022). Blockchain governance in the public sector: A conceptual framework for public management. Government Information Quarterly, 39(1), 101625.

Torsello, D., & Venard, B. (2016). The anthropology of corruption. Journal of Management Inquiry, 25(1), 34–54.

Transparency International. (2022). 2021 Corruption perceptions index - explore Germany. Transparency.Org.

Treiblmaier, H., & Sillaber, C. (2020). A Case Study of Blockchain-Induced Digital Transformation in the Public Sector. 227–244.

Venkatesh, V., Sykes, T. A., & Venkatraman, S. (2014). Understanding e-Government portal use in rural India: Role of demographic and personality characteristics. Information Systems Journal.

Yang, X., & Li, W. (2020). A zero-knowledge-proof-based digital identity management scheme in blockchain. Computers and Security, 99.